Everywhere in the world women live longer than men – but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn’t live longer than men in the 19th century. What’s the main reason women are more likely to live longer than men? Why has this advantage gotten larger in the past? There is only limited evidence and the evidence isn’t sufficient to support an informed conclusion. We know that behavioral, biological and environmental factors all contribute to the fact that women live longer than men; however, we do not know how significant the impact of each one of these factors is.
In spite of the precise number of pounds, we know that at a minimum, the reason women live longer than men in the present and not previously, is to be due to the fact that several significant non-biological elements have changed. These are the factors that are changing. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, زيوت تطويل الشعر like the fact that men smoke more often. There are others that are more intricate. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women’s longevity disproportionately.
Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that all countries are over the line of parity diagonally. This implies that a baby girl in every country can anticipate to live longer than her older brother.
It is interesting to note that, while the advantage for women exists everywhere, the difference between countries is huge. In Russia women have an average of 10 years more than men; in Bhutan the difference is just half one year.
In the richer countries, the women’s advantage in longevity used to be smaller
Let’s take a look at how the female longevity advantage has changed in the course of time. The next chart shows the male and female lifespans at birth in the US between 1790 and 2014. Two specific points stand out.
The first is that there is an upward trend. Men and women in the US live a lot, much longer than they did a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.
Second, there’s an increase in the gap between men and women: female advantage in terms of life expectancy used to be quite small but it increased substantially in the past century.
By selecting ‘Change Country in the chart, you will be able to confirm that the two points apply to other countries that have available information: Sweden, France and the UK.